China has the largest risk of corruption across all industries, according to a 2011 report by a U.S. investigative firm.
It lists penalties paid in bribery cases under the United States’ Foreign Corrupt Practices Act by U.S. companies operating overseas or overseas companies listed in America. The data is presented in an interactive map.
While Nigeria had the highest amount of penalties paid since the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act was introduced in 1977, these cases were mostly limited to the oil industry. Data for China showed penalties for corruption paid across all sectors—the broadest range of corruption cases in the world.
Commentators say bribery is so broad in China because the country lacks an independent judicial system.
“The Communist Party controls the courts, the public security authorities, and the investigative mechanisms,” said Cao An Ju Shi, Current Affairs Commentator.
“It has never allowed an independent judicial system. So in this aspect the actions of the Communist Party have allowed China to become a country without proper controls or a proper system of law.”
Although the findings of the report are alarming, they may only represent the tip of the iceberg and they do not include domestically owned Chinese companies that are not listed in the United States.