Using Light-Powered Wires to Modulate the Brain’s Electrical Signals

A new University of Chicago study shows how tiny, light-powered wires could be fashioned out of silicon to provide these electrical signals. (Image: Pixabay / CC0 1.0)
A new University of Chicago study shows how tiny, light-powered wires could be fashioned out of silicon to provide these electrical signals. (Image: Pixabay / CC0 1.0)

The human brain largely remains a black box. How the network of fast-moving electrical signals turns into thought, movement, and disease remains poorly understood. But it is electrical, so it can be hacked — the question is finding a precise, easy way to manipulate electrical signaling between neurons.

A new University of Chicago study shows how tiny, light-powered wires could be fashioned out of silicon to provide these electrical signals. Published Feb. 19 in Nature Nanotechnology, the study offers a new avenue to shed light on — and perhaps someday treat — brain disorders.

Ten years ago, the science world was alive with speculation about a recently discovered technique called optogenetics, which would manipulate neural activity with light. The problem is that it has to be done with genetics; inserting a gene into a target cell that would make it respond to light. Other ways of modulating neurons have since been suggested, but a perfect alternative remains elusive.

Brain's Electrical Signals

The rod at top right is positioned to modify electrical signaling between the neurons. The entire image is smaller than the diameter of a single human hair. (Image: Courtesy of Parameswaran, et al.)

A team, led by Asst. Prof. Bozhi Tian, built minuscule wires previously designed for solar cells. These nanowires are so small that hundreds of them could sit side-by-side on the edge of a sheet of paper — putting them on the same scale as the parts of cells they’re trying to communicate with.

These nanowires combine two types of silicon to create a small electrical current when struck by light. Gold, diffused by a special process onto the surface of the wire, acts as a catalyst to promote electrochemical reactions.

The team tested the approach with rat neurons grown in a lab, and saw they could indeed trigger neurons to fire these electrical signals.

“It’s a fundamental but very promising approach,” Tian said. They plan next to test the system in animals, which could both help researchers further understand how these electrical signals work in the brain as well as suggest ways to address problems like Parkinson’s disease or psychiatric disorders.

Provided by: University of Chicago Medicine [Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.]

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